We have chosen not to confine ourselves to the regulatory definition of food policy and to propose a broader vision extending to all public policies contributing to food, its qualities (nutritional, sanitary, organoleptic) and its sustainability: nutritional, social, environmental, agricultural, agro-industrial, economic, commercial policies, etc. This broad approach to the notion of food policy, centred on the promotion of healthy and sustainable diets, makes it possible to address food issues in a systemic way, in an international and national perspective. The notion of food system, which is defined as "the way in which people organise themselves, in space and time, to obtain and consume their food" will be placed at the heart of the analysis.
France is facing multiple challenges: economic, with the challenge of food autonomy; economic and social, with an ageing agricultural population, a lack of attractiveness and low income in the agricultural professions; environmental, as agriculture and food constitute a significant source of greenhouse gases and diffuse pollution; public health, with an obesity rate at a historically high level, even if it remains lower than in most of our European neighbour countries, and with modes of agricultural production that have contributed to the emergence of new concerns related to chemical contaminants.
 "Healthy and sustainable diets are eating patterns that promote all dimensions of human health and well-being. They have low environmental pressure and impact, are accessible, affordable, safe, and equitable, and are culturally acceptable. The objectives of healthy and sustainable diets are to achieve optimal growth and development of all individuals and to support physical, mental, and social functioning and well-being at all stages of life, for current and future generations, as well as to contribute to the prevention of all forms of malnutrition (i.e. undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, and obesity), to reduce the risk of diet-related NCDs, and to support the preservation of biodiversity and global health. Healthy and sustainable diets must combine all dimensions of sustainability to avoid undesirable consequences": FAO-WHO (2020), Healthy and sustainable diets. Guidelines, Rome, 44 p., here p. 11.
 Malassis L. (1994), Nourrir les hommes, Paris, Dominos-Flammarion, 110 p.